Iron cross makers marks
The Iron Cross Second Class held a certain level of prestige in the waning days of ; in war's past, even this lowest grade had been stringently presented. However, as the conflict entered advanced years, and certainly as the German infrastructure crumbled inthis grade was given out with liberalism and therefore its reputation eroded accordingly.How to Make Metal Stamps from Nails, DIY Jewelry Decorating Tool, Chevron Stamp
In spite of this, the Iron Cross 2nd Class was a valued decoration and many recipients have proudly documented the deeds which earned them the right to wear it. The official criteria for the award was a single act of bravery in the face of the enemy, or actions that were clearly above and beyond the call of duty. Heer and SS personnel would receive the Cross for a successful action in which the soldier distinguished himself. For example, Platoon commander SS Obersturmfuhrer Eric Brorup of the 5th SS Panzer Division was decorated on December 1, for leading a reconnaissance forest raid in the Eastern front during which a fire fight ensued.
His platoon inflicted enemy casualties and brought back six prisoners, two of them NCOs. It was not uncommon for an entire unit to receive the Iron Cross 2nd Class.
The entire crew of U was decorated on September 18th in recognition of their sinking of the 22, aircraft carrier HMS Courageous on the previous day. The 2nd Class of the Iron Cross measured 44mm in diameter and was held by a black, white and red ribbon representing the colors of the new Reich.
For complete manufacturing information please see the Manufacturing Section of this article. Once the basic cross was manufactured, a ring was soldered to the upper arm, and this in turn chain linked with the loop through which the ribbon passed on a standard Iron Cross 30mm was presented with the award. The central stripe of the cloth measured 14mm with the black and white stripes measuring 4mm each. Manufacturer mark, if present, was on the ribbon loop. Many Iron Crosses were unmarked and the absence of a stamp mark is common.
Click on images to enlarge Standard Iron Cross. Click on each manufacturer to see an example of the cross. These crosses are featured because they are marked, but the lack of a mark is also completely normal. In many cases, the manufacturer of a cross without a mark may be deduced by comparing it to a marked example. Be aware that there are variations within manufacturers and the ones presented here are representative of the maker, but by no means the last word on them.
When the cross was worn in full dress, several options were used to hold it.At a minimum, this statement is true for the foundation year series of and, at a respectful distance, the series.
The historical dimension, the engaging symmetrical aesthetic, and the appealing juxtaposition of two metals which could not be more different from one another, only begin to explain why contemporary examples of this patriotic decoration are in such high demand. As this demand is now so high, and there are an insufficient number of originals, there has followed what must: modern copies.
These copies may be revealed through the use of relevant literature, photo documentation, and comparative analysis with known originals. To begin with, of course, we have the words of the Old Master of Prussian Militaria-writing.
He continues: On 30 July, the day before the departure of the king to join his army, the president of the General Order Commission, Adjutant General v. Bonin, presented an Iron Cross, finished that same day, to the king. Wilhelm himself wrote on the accompanying letter from General v. Bonin: "Approved. On 11 August, Director Schmidt announced to the jewelers authorized to make the silver frames that the Iron Cross cores could be picked up.
Furthermore, Schneider recounts his manufacturing figures in detail, and states in summary that, by command of His Majesty the King, a total of 44, crosses had been delivered as of July, from the General Order Commission to the Military Cabinet. The foundry to which Schneider refers is the Royal Iron Foundry in Berlin, founded in and located in front of the Oranienburger Gate.
For our purposes here, we must investigate the manufacturing techniques and connections of the time. The Berlin Foundry had a high technical "know-how," and when undertaking to manufacture cores its artisans could look back with pride on a long and successful company history.
But the Foundry did not undertake only large-scale projects. Its experience with decorative artwork and delicate jewelry seemed to make it the perfect choice to manufacture the cores for the Iron Cross. Let us investigate the workshops and production techniques to learn more about our subject.
After the confirmation of the new core design, the first step was to make a wax model from which a master mold would be made with a soft metal like tin or silver. Then sand -- sifted several times through a linen cloth and kneaded with clay -- was mixed with water and tapped by a hammer into the mold until it was tightly compacted. After smoothing, the workpieces were pressed in and then the second, already prepared side of the mold could be attached and assembled under high pressure.
After the separation of the two halves -- which could be accomplished without difficulty as the contact faces had been powdered with coal dust before -- the master pieces could be removed leaving the remaining imprints connected by fine channels.
This is how a so-called casting tree was produced. After the finished casting molds dried, the actual casting began. Experienced workers poured the molten iron from a melting pot into the provided openings of the mold, where the iron flowed evenly into the hollows. Through previously-applied outlets, the suppressed air escaped. This technique allowed the production of high quantities in the shortest time Fig.
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Initially, each core was cast. However, the astounsing number of Iron Crosses awarded -- over 5 miliion in World War I -- soon made other techniques necessary. Why guess?! Get the expert's opinion at. Perhaps no other military decoration is as significant as the Iron Cross.
After the solidification process of the iron, the molds were separated and the cores removed by means of a slight knock, or tap, on the side of the mold. With a polishing stone the cores were finished by hand and given the desired look of fine jewelry.EvansNov 23, Log in or Sign up to interact with the community. Log in or Sign up.
WWII Forums. Iron Cross 2nd Class Makers markings. Joined: Nov 28, Messages: 25, Likes Received: Here is a list of Iron Cross 2nd Class makers markings.
Makers markings are located on the ribbon ring that is a large ring through a smaller ring--in which through the larger ring--the ribbon for the Iron Cross is put through.
Location Fred Wiedmann, Frankfurt am Main Zimmermann,Pforzheim Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Heeresbedarf in der Graveur-und-Ziselierung, Berlin Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Hanauer Plakettenhersteller, Hanau am Main Mayers Kunstpragesanstalt, Pforzheim Anton Schenkls Nachfolger, Wein Vienna Friedrich Linden, Ludenscheid Assmann und Sohn, Ludenscheid Franz Jungwirth, Wien Vienna Josef Feliz Sohn, Gablonz a. Neckar Robert Hauschild, Pforzheim Klein und Quenzer A.
Friedrich Keller, Oberstein Unknown Manufacturer Ernst L. Muller, Pforzheim Osang, Dresden Adolf Scholze, Grunwald a. Rudolf Souval, Wien Vienna Rudolf Wachtler und Lange August G. Tam, Gablonz an der Neckar Bruder Schneider A. Arno Wallpach, Salzburg Please reference this pinned topic at the top of the forum: List of Iron Cross Manufacturers. You can post now and register later.
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Paste as plain text instead. Only 75 emoji are allowed. Display as a link instead. Clear editor. Upload or insert images from URL. Reply to this topic Start new topic. Recommended Posts. Bodomir 0 Posted June 25, Posted June 25, edited. Junker Berlin 3 Wilheim Deumer L? Lauer N? Zimmermann Pforzheim 21 Gebr. Mayer's Kunstpr? Wien 33 Friedrich Linden L? Pforzheim S.
Jablonski G. Link to post Share on other sites. Bill Garvy 0 Posted June 26, Posted June 26, Bodomir 0 Posted July 8, Posted July 8, How should it be done? Join the conversation You can post now and register later. Reply to this topic Insert image from URL. Followers 0. Go to topic listing. Blog Comments. The British and Their Tea. I like my tea strong enough for my spoon to stand up in.
My father got me into it. So years later in the UK when everybody else was drinking iced drinks on a baking day the wood family was inbibing copious quantities of hot strong brews of Assam's finest.
Hi ccj, Thanks for your comments. Funny how, for me at least, coffee has become a habit more than a conscience choice. It's the old, "Well if you having one coffee pour me as well". When I get together with my son-in-law, a former Brit, it's tea all the way. Thanks again.The Iron Cross 1st Class had the same dimensions and identical obverse features as the 2nd Class 44mm by 44mm. Constructed of 3 pieces, the 1st class was a breast badge and therefore the reverse was a solid silvered metal plate with only the attachment mechanism present.
For manufacturing process, please see the section in this article bearing that name. The fastening mode could consist of either a hinged pin and catch, or the privately purchased screw-back system discussed below in "Variations". Several styles of the pin and catch attachment existed; one finds "fat bellied" pins, straight pins, and tapered pins. The pin-and-catch mechanism can very often reveal clues as to who manufactured an unmarked cross.
Period pins and the catches which almost always consisted of a classic "c" catch were sturdy and do not yield to finger pressure. While most of the Iron Crosses are "flat", some have a slightly convex appearance. The 1st Class of the Iron Cross was presented more scarcely, and logically held a correspondingly higher level of stature than the second class. In order to receive the Iron Cross 1st Class Heer and Waffen SS men would have to perform three to four further acts of courage from the one that earned him the 2nd Class.
The Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine had the following criteria; the award was regularly awarded to U-boat Commanders upon sinking 50, tons and to Luftwaffe pilots when they achieved six or seven confirmed kills.
Of course these were only guidelines, and a single act of great importance or a long steady career could earn the individual the Cross.
Click on images to enlarge. This "Divisionstagesbefehl" shows 42 soldiers from the I. Signed by Gen. Werner Richter, D. As in the case of the 2nd Class, unmarked crosses are perfectly normal if a little less desired by the average collector. Below is a database of known makers with photographs. Click on the maker to see photos. Wien 15 Friedrich Orth Wien 20 C. The "screw-back" types, more scarcely found and thus worth more to the collector, had a protruding threaded shaft that was placed through the tunic.
It was held by a round plate that screwed on from behind. Sometimes, a small pin on the reverse of the upper arm was added to keep the Cross from rotating on its axis. They had been previously made, and so they were essentially available throughout the war.
This variation of the Iron Cross has its core made from non-magnetic materials, usually brass but also possibly zinc. As with the Second Class, there are estimated to be early production pieces. Click on image to enlarge. The Shinkelform cross is a rare variation of this class. Like the 2nd class, these were made from the dies and thus have narrower features, as pictured below. Shinkelform Iron Cross 1st Class Round 3 The obverse of this variation is identical to the one described in the 2nd class.
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Iron Cross 2nd Class Makers markings.
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